Your number one priority for survival is beating the Arctic temperatures. Four easy-to-remember tips, as outlined by Wilderness Survival, use the acronym COLD: Clean, Overheating, Loose layers and Dry. Clean clothes are warm clothes, as clothing that are dirty, grimy or caked with muck will not insulate as well. Overheating is a major danger, as your inner layer of clothing will absorb your sweat---and warmth. Open your parka and remove a thin inner layer of clothing if you start to get too hot. Loose layers of clothing help keep you warm, as does staying dry.
Unless you are carrying a tent, you need a shelter you either run across or build yourself. Shelters keep out the elements and hide you from any predators. Construct a shelter out of snow or wood, but never metal, as metal sucks away any heat you are going to create. Establish a shelter that is large enough to fit your body and not much else. You don't need tons of space, but only enough room to sleep and, if you wish, light a fire. Make sure to include a ventilation hole for smoke if you are planning to light a fire. Line the ground with insulating pine needles, leaves, branches or other material and always put out your fire before falling asleep.
Gather Food and Water
Water is everywhere in the Arctic, even if its in the form of ice and snow. Ice yields more water per volume than snow, and melt both of them before consuming or you'll lose body heat. Depending on the season, you may also run across some water sources that are not frozen. Purify all water sources with water tablets before drinking. Fish and sea life, other than the highly toxic black mussel, Arctic shark or sculpin eggs, work for food. Choices include a variety of mussels, sea cucumbers, fish eggs and sea urchins as well as shellfish and kelp that wash to shore.
A survival kit, however simple, will give you a stash of handy items at your glove tips as well as tools that can help stave off unforeseen disasters. House your kit in a lightweight, durable box or pouch made of a waterproof material with a waterproof seal. Include your first-aid items along with tablets to purify water, matches or other equipment to start fires and a mirror or other items that can send signals. Keep a knife and other small tools like a sewing needle and thread, candles, fishhooks and fishing line, wire, surgical blades and anything else you foresee needing in an emergency or otherwise.