A survival kit should include everything you use to treat minor illnesses at home combined with everything you are likely to need from the doctor to treat major illnesses. In a survival situation, you will probably not have any nearby doctor or pharmacy, and will have to be prepared to supply any medicine you or your companions might need. Stock up on any prescriptions you require, and obtain other useful medical supplies.
A well-equipped first aid kit, able to treat anything from minor scratches and bumps to moderate wounds and sprains is a must for any survival kit. Your kit should include iodine and alcohol bottles or pads, as well as antibiotic ointment for cleaning and disinfecting wounds. It should also include an assortment of bandages, sterile gauze and adhesive tape for covering both small and large wounds. Tweezers and smelling salts should also be included in a kit.
If you are capable of basic medical procedures, you may wish to include more advanced equipment in your first aid bag. A scalpel, sutures, forceps and wound probes will allow you to perform basic surgical procedures should the need arise.
A number of basic, over-the-counter medications will help you to treat minor ailments and illnesses. Aspirin or another anti-inflammatory to treat both pain and fever should be included in your kit. Over the counter anti-diarrheals, decongestants and fast-acting antihistamines such as diphenhydramine can also be helpful. Don't forget suncscreen and an ointment such as calamine lotion to soothe burns, insect bites and other minor irritations. A complete multivitamin is a crucial supply that falls somewhere between food supplement and medicine. Should you be forced to live on little food, it will help prevent some of the effects of malnourishment.
Bacterial infections are one of the most serious scenarios in a survival situation. An infected wound, food poisoning or strep throat can become a life-threatening situation absent proper medication. The Survival Medical FAQ recommends a broad-spectrum penicillin family antibiotic such as Augmentin, which can treat nearly any sort of bacterial infection. For survivalists allergic to penicillin, a broad spectrum cephalosporin such as cefotaxime or a quinolone such as ciprofloxacin will cure nearly any bacterial infection.