In cross-country skiing, the abdominal core muscles are used in order to maintain dynamic balance. Additionally, the oblique muscles, which run diagonally across the torso, may be used in conjunction with the upper body.
The hamstrings are located in the backs of the legs. In cross-country skiing, they are involved in flexion of the leg.
The quadriceps are located in the front of the legs. These muscles actively extend or straighten the leg during cross-country skiing.
The gluteal muscles, otherwise known as the muscles in your buttocks, are used to climb up hills. Additionally, taking long strides in cross-country skiing involves active use of the gluteal muscles.
Leg Abductors and Adductors
The adductors are the inner thighs, and the abductors are the outer thighs. These muscle groups have two functions in cross-country skiing. They stabilize the knee, and they move the leg toward and away from the body.
Pectoral Muscles and Triceps
When using cross-country ski poles, the pectoral muscles, which are the muscles of your chest, and the triceps, which are the backs of your arms, are used to push the poles away from the body.
Rhomboids, Rear Deltoids and Biceps
The rhomboids are the muscles of the upper back. They are involved in pulling the shoulder blades together. The rear deltoids are located in the back of your shoulders, and the biceps are in the front of your arms. These pulling muscles work together to bring the poles toward and behind the body.
The gastronemius is the muscle of the calf. In cross-country skiing, it is used to support the actions of the lower leg.