Independence, Missouri, was founded in 1827, and in the next two decades it became a popular trading post. Pioneers knew they had to stock up on supplies before they left Independence, as it would be their last chance to purchase essentials. Today, you can still see grooves in the earth made by their wagons. Stop by the National Frontier Trails Museum for a walking map of these wagon trails.
National Frontier Trails Museum
Independence, MO 64050
Courthouse and Jailhouse Rock
These land formations in the Platte River Valley were two of the first that pioneers would see on their journey west, so many noted them in their journals. They are located two miles south of Bridgeport, Nebraska, on Route 88 near the Courthouse and Jail Rock Golf Course.
This tall monument made a strong impression on many pioneers. In fact, many people consider it the most famous landmark on the Oregon Trail. It stood toward the end of the prairielands, marking the transition into more rugged terrain. Pioneers probably saw it both as a welcoming symbol beckoning them west, and as a warning that their journey would soon become more treacherous. It fascinated many pioneers and surveyors, who sketched it and wrote about it extensively. Today, it stands at 325 feet from top to bottom. Take a guided tour of this majestic monument to learn more about pioneer times, or just hike around it yourself.
Chimney Rock National Historic Site
(1.5 miles south of Highway 92 on Chimney Rock Road)
Bayard, NE 69334
Fur traders constructed Fort Laramie in 1834 for trading at the confluence of the North Platte and Laramie rivers. The U.S. military purchased and renamed it after Jacques La Ramie, a fur trader, in 1849. In addition to providing supplies to pioneers and fur traders, it served as a major stop on the Pony Express and the Overland Stage, as well as for telegraph systems that spanned the continent. During the High Plains Indian Wars, it served as an important base. A number of buildings have been restored, such as the cavalry barracks, captain's quarters and bakery. Visitors can stroll around these refurbished buildings and the ruins, then go for a hike in the surrounding area. The park is located in Southeast Wyoming. From I-25 take exit 92 to U.S. Highway 26, proceed east to the Town of Fort Laramie, turn right on State Highway 160 and travel 3 miles to the park entrance. From U.S. Highways 26/85, proceed west from the town of Lingle on Highway 26 to the Town of Fort Laramie, turn left on State Highway 160 and travel 3 miles to the park entrance.
Fort Laramie National Historic Site
Fort Laramie, WY 82212
Many pioneers stopped to rest by this enormous granite rock, which acquired its name from the Fourth of July celebration held there in 1830, and many aimed to arrive there by that day. Many carved their names in the rock, which measures 1,900 feet long and stands in modern-day Wyoming. J. Goldsborough Bruff thought it looked like an enormous whale from a distance. Today, many people enjoy climbing the rock, while others enjoy hiking around it.
Independence Rock State Historic Site
Casper, WY 82601
This fort became a trading post on the Oregon Trail in 1842. In 1857, a conflict broke out here between Mormons and the U.S. government, and a Mormon guerrilla army burned the fort down. It was rebuilt and became an important stop on the Pony Express and Overland Stage routes. Visitors will find a museum and interpretive archeological site with several restored buildings.
Fort Bridger State Historic Site
Ft. Bridger, WY 82933
Pioneers often stopped at Soda Springs to use their naturally bubbling waters, caused by ancient volcanic activity, as a curative. Others simply enjoyed bathing in the waters. Ironically, some became sick from drinking them. Today, you can visit one of the springs that pioneers stopped at, such as Hooper Springs, which still have naturally-occurring carbonated water.
Geyser Park & Visitor Center
Soda Springs, ID 83276
Fort Hall, in modern-day Idaho, became a trading post in 1834. Because of difficult terrain, pioneers were often forced to leave their wagons at the fort and continue onward with their animals. In 1843, however, Dr. Marcus Whitman guided a wagon train westward, and more pioneers began traveling to Oregon with their wagons.
Fort Hall Replica
Upper Level Ross Park
Pocatello, ID 83201
Old Fort Boise
A competitor to Fort Hall, Fort Boise was abandoned in 1854 because of flooding and conflicts with American Indians. The Fort Boise that exists today was reconstructed near present-day Boise, Idaho, in 1863.
Old Fort Boise
Boise, ID 83702-4541
Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa founded this mission in 1836. In 1847, after an epidemic
of measles broke out amongst the American Indians at the mission, the Cayuse tribe killed 12 white people at the mission, including Whitman, and burned it down. Today, the Whitman Mission National Historic Site features a museum and many activities for both children and adults, such as storytelling, especially in the summer months. In addition to hiking through the park, visitors may want to explore or camp in the nearby Umatilla National Forest.
Whitman Mission National Historic Site
Walla Walla, WA 99362
This path down the Columbia River acquired its name from the French word for "gutter." Pioneers had to ride on wooden rafts with their wagons, often getting caught in whirlpools, to make their way down the gorge. In 1845, with the opening of the Barlow Toll Road that circled around Mt. Hood, pioneers had a safer road to travel. Today, people often go boating, windsurfing and camping in the Dalles. Many enjoy visiting Sorosis Park, which sits high above the river, giving visitors a spectacular view. Some camp in Celilo Park, Deschutes River State Recreation Area or one of the many other nearby parks.
Columbia Gorge Discovery Center and Museum
The Dalles, OR 97058
Established in 1829 by the Hudson's Bay Company, Oregon City is located on the Willamette River near the southern limits of Portland. Pioneers and American Indians widely used it as a site of trade, as well as for powering local mills. Today, many people enjoy the Clackamas River Trail that runs through the city, as well as Clackamette Park, one of the largest of the city's 22 parks.
End of the Oregon Trail Historic Oregon City
Oregon City, OR 97045