If an area on a topographical map has no contour lines at all, or if the space between lines is extremely large, the map reader can deduce that the area is relatively flat.
Contour lines at widely spaced intervals indicate a gentle slope in that area. Closely spaced contour lines indicate a steep slope.
If the contour lines are spaced at intervals so small that the lines are almost touching (or are actually touching), the map reader can construe that there is a cliff or cliffs in the area.
Valleys and Gullies, Ridges and Spurs
Contour lines that appear in a pattern shaped like a U indicate a gentle gully or rounded valley if the bottom of the U is facing in an uphill direction (look at the elevation numbers attached to the contour lines to figure out which way is uphill). If the Ushape is pointing downhill, it indicates a gentle ridge. Lines in a V shape mean a sharp, steep valley or gully if the V is pointing uphill, and a sharp ridge if it's pointing to lower elevation.
Cirques, Bowls and saddles
Contour lines that form a pattern in the shape of a half circle, like an amphitheater, indicate cirques or bowls. Hourglass configurations with higher contour elevations on each side represent a low point on a ridge, also known as a saddle, pass or col.
Value of Contour Intervals
Contour lines are marked, usually every five lines, and below the scale measurements on the map you'll find what the contour interval is. It is common, for example, for a map to say that contour intervals are 40 feet and that any dotted contour lines represent 20-foot contours.