What Kind of Volcano Is Mauna Loa?

Mauna Loa (which means "long mountain" in Hawaiian) is one of the world's great peaks. It's the largest active volcano, and one of the most energetic. Its dramatic bulk comprises half of the island of Hawaii (the "Big island"), which it shares with several fellow volcanoes. (Pictured below: Mauna Loa in Hawaii with the space observatory in the foreground)
What Kind of Volcano Is Mauna Loa?


Mauna Loa is a shield volcano, one produced by repeated, fluid lava flows building a very broad, subdued uplift that, in profile, resembles an enormous shield.



This and the other Hawaiian shield volcanoes derive from the Hawaiian hot spot, a stationary vent of magma over which the Pacific plate is moving. Active volcanoes form on the seafloor over the hot spot, and eventually go extinct as the tectonic action moves them away from the lava source.


This is the world's biggest active volcano. Mauna Loa rises 13,680 feet above the Pacific's surface, but its base on the seafloor, depressed by the massive peak, is actually 56,000 feet from the summit. The mountain is 60 miles long and 30 miles wide.


Mauna Loa is also one of the most active of the world's volcanoes. Its last major eruption was in 1984, and vulcanologists expect another blow. Around 98 percent of the peak is blanketed in lava flows under 10,000 years old.


The Long Mountain is one of five shield volcanoes comprising Hawaii. The others are Kohala, Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kilauea. Mauna Kea, while not as massive as Mauna Loa, is taller.

Article Written By Ethan Schowalter-Hay

Ethan Schowalter-Hay is a writer and naturalist living in Oregon. He has written for the "Observer," the Bureau of Land Management and various online publishers. He holds a Bachelor of Science in wildlife ecology and a graduate certificate in geographic information systems from the University of Wisconsin.

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